A Kárpát-medencében talált bronzkori öntőformák regisztere

"BA Casting moulds of the Carpathian Basin20190715 81220 b27ckj
Gábor Ilon
In 1988-89 the author excavated at Gór-Kápolnadomb (Western Hungary) a Late Bronze Age pit with casting moulds and human remains. Following the publication of the assemblage and new moulds from further features (1992, 1996, 2003), the collection of similar finds was extended to the complete territory of the Carpathian Basin. Relevant data were also incorporated into the Industrial Archaeological database. The collection was planned to be published together in a dedicated volume of PBF; however, its realisation became increasingly unrealistic. A preliminary cadastre was reviewed (2006) and efforts made to describe various level centres of the craft and interpret their connections (2007). Later on, in 2017 thanks to the understanding of the project leader for the project Lendület (Momentum) (L2015-3.) I could complete my collection of data and visualize them on a map. Summarizing several decades of collecting moulds we can state that its utility, i.e. supporting important and well-founded consequences is rendered problematic by several factors. Just to mention a few: 1, access to publications; 2, the random occurrence of moulds in excavation context; 3, the readiness and openness of the excavator, i.e., speed and quality in the publication of the finds-in text or with proper illustration. In spite of all difficulties I could collect several series of moulds, from the Early Bronze Age 32 pieces (Fig. 1.), the Middle Bronze Age 70 pieces (Fig. 2.) and the Late Bronze Age 95 pieces (Fig. 3.). It is obvious that concentration of sites with metallurgical production took place already in the Middle Bronze Age (20 workshops) Centralisation during the Late Bronze Age involved, however, new sites and centres (21 workshops) and comprised larger series of objects (more moulds in the ateliers and increase in total number of finds). In the case of moulds found on the settlements we can only infer the presence of workshop when several pieces of moulds turn up in one 'house' or other specific feature, or one piece accompanied by other metallurgical production items (e.g., bronze slag, ingot or blow pipe) denoting unambiguously the practice of metallurgy. A central workshop, i.e., supplying more than just one settlement, can be supposed for sites with more than 3 pieces of moulds. Mapping the sites (Fig. 1-3) show that all significant copper ore regions were known since the beginning of the Bronze Age. Only the Early Bronze Age use of the Rudna Glava mine is not documented. I assume that in the centuries of the Bronze Age the workshop sites were primarily supplied with copper ore along the waterways. The considerations presented above mark the tasks for the future. Obviously advantageous for further research, all the Bronze Age casting moulds should be published in illustrated form at the same place. With international collaboration project, it would be worth while to set up a dedicated database. For this, all facets of the casting mould should be registered at least on a digital photo, relevant dimensions measured and petrographical features analysed. On the basis of these studies, moulds from clay or artificial material could be separated and those made of rocks potentially identified by place of provenance. The latter data might indicate connections between the individual communities as well as division of the labour within the specific cultures. Fig.1. Localities with Early Bronze Age casting moulds in the Carpathian Basin."


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