Az ólomérc feldolgozás legkorábbi régészeti bizonyítékai az Alduna térségének rézkori településeiről: Hansen S, Montero-Ruiz I, Rovira S, Steiniger D, ToderaşM (2019) The earliest lead ore processing in Europe. 5th millennium BC finds from Pietrele....

Citation: Hansen S, Montero-Ruiz I, Rovira S, Steiniger D, ToderaşM (2019)
The earliest lead ore processing in Europe. 5th millennium BC finds fromPietrele
on the Lower Danube. PLoS ONE 14(4): e0214218. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.
Editor: Peter F. Biehl, University at Buffalo - The State University of New York, UNITED STATES
"Abstract
Eleven biconical vessels from the Copper Age sites Pietrele and Blejeşti (Romania) have
been investigated using p-XRF. In most cases, traces of lead could be measured on their
surfaces. Samples of slag-like material from two vessels and the clay of one vessel were
investigated using laboratory methods, namely SEM, XRD, LIA and optical microscopy. The
vessels were obviously used as a kind of crucible in which slag-like remains and galena ore
were detected. It still remains unclear as to what final product was gained by smelting galena
in this way. The amount of these such vessels in the Pietrele settlement, their appearance
as grave goods in Pietrele and Vărăști (Romania), and their supposed occurrence in a number
of other Copper Age settlements in Romania and Bulgaria show the significance of this
phenomenon. It must have been a widespread and more or less well known practice, an
important part of cultural habit during a particular period in the Lower Danube region and
likely even farther afield. For the first time, extensive experimentation with lead ore can be
shown in a clear chronological horizon, ca. 4400–4300 BCE in southeastern Europe."

"OPEN ACCESS...
Received: September 10, 2018; Accepted: March 9, 2019; Published: April 10, 2019
Copyright: © 2019 Hansen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information
files. Funding: Funded by Deutsche. Forschungsgemeinschaft HA2410-9.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist."

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