Avar kori kohótelepek vasérc- és vassalak-leleteinek anyagvizsgálatai és a vastárgyak metallográfiai értékelése: Kaposvár - Fészerlak és Zamárdi - Kútvölgy

B. TÖRÖK – Á. KOVÁCS – ZS. GALLINA: Ironmetallurgy of the pannonian avars of the 7-9th century based on excavations and material examinations; Der Anscnhitt, Beiheft 26, Bochum, 2015. ISBN 10: 3-937203-74-5 p. 229-237.
Gallina Zsolt két fontos Somogy megyei kohóásatásán talált vasércek, vassalakok anyagvizsgálatai és a kohászati helyeken (Kaposvár-Fészerlak és Zamárdi-Kútvölgy) feltárt avar kori kések és vasszeg metallográfiai vizsgálatának eredményei.
"Summary
The technologies of iron metallurgy of Pannonian Avars in the Carpathian Basin of the 7th - 9th century is described by means of archaeometallurgical investigations of ore, slag, furnace wall-fragment and iron finds. All the technological processes (burning of charcoal, roasting of ore, smelting, compacting of bloom and smithing) were performed in the same area of workshops having a high volume and productivity as compared to the early medieval circumstances in this area. The local roasted bog ore having a relatively low Fe-content was smelt in a so-called Avar-type clay bloomery which were standing partly free and were equipped with breast-wall and tuyères. The iron-loss and the quantity of slag were relatively high during smelting. On the basis of the morphology, composition and microstructure of slags it can be stated that two different sorts of slags were formed: tap-slag flowing out of the furnace and cinder remaining in the bloomery up to the end of smelting. The relatively high MnO-content of ores and slags is a characteristic local feature.
The bloom made in this way was reheated after smelting and packed on the site and was probably used soon. The smithies were mainly built outside of houses but there are indications for smithing activities within buildings. Though quickly cooled microstructures in iron artefacts without any traces of forming could be found, the investigation of most of the iron tools denotes basically the technology of a free-form forging without heat treatment. However, it can be supposed that a conscious technology was used, which is shown by the overlapping of soft ferritic structures and relatively harder ferritic-pearlitic structures. Using this feature, the surfaces, edges and pins exposed to higher strain were always harder even at the pieces having a very thin cross section."

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